Glossary Definition and Terms

14k
The K stands for Karat, the system used to describe the pure gold content in metal. 14k gold contains 14 parts gold and 10 parts of additional metals, or alloys, making it 58.3% pure gold.
18k
The K stands for Karat, the system used to describe the pure gold content in metal. 18k gold contains 18 parts gold and 6 parts of additional metals, or alloys, making it 75% pure gold.
19k
18k white gold is an industry standard however Scott Kay uses a white gold mixture of 80% pure gold alloyed with up to 16% palladium.
4 C's
Various characteristics of diamonds are graded and categorized by the diamond industry. The most important, and easiest to identify are the Cut, Clarity, Color, and Carat weight.
Accent Diamonds
Any size diamond that accompanies a larger center stone in a ring setting.
AIG
American International Gemologist, a globally recognized gemological laboratory for grading and appraising jewelry.
Alloy
A mixture of two or more metals used to increase the strength, durability and workability of the metal.
Anniversary Ring
A ring that is given to commemorate and/or celebrate a past event, like a wedding day.
Appraisal
A valuation of property or goods by an expert in their given field. An appraisal is required by some insurance companies to add jewelry to a policy and should be done by an unbiased source. Because we have sold the item and are therefore biased, we offer a "Statement of Replacement Value" that is accepted by many insurance companies. We do not do appraisals purchased elsewhere as we do not have a professional on staff to do this type of work.
Argentium Silver
935 silver or 92.5% silver alloyed with 7.5% copper and metalloid germanium. A Low maintenance metal with no plating necessary. Argentium Silver is brighter than traditional sterling silver because of the metalloid germanium which helps to resist tarnish; harder than sterling silver.
Asscher Cut
A diamond or gemstone cut named for Joseph Asscher. This square cut diamond with 72 facets was developed in 1902. An Asscher has step facets and cut corners making the gemstone resemble an octagon.
Baguette
A gemstone, often a diamond, cut in a narrow rectangular shape. Small diamonds cut this way are often used as accents. A tapered baguette has one short end narrower than the opposite end, forming a trapezoid.
Bar Setting
A diamond (or gemstone) set between two parallel bars where the sides of the gems are left open.
Band
A plain ring usually cast in gold, silver, platinum, or palladium. Band usually refers to a ring that is the same width all the way around.
Bead Setting
A technique used to set stones into metal. Beads of metal are formed around the stone offering security while being pleasing to the eye.
Bezel
A ring of metal holding a stone in a setting. A bezel usually completely surrounds the stone but can also be partially surrounding the stone, this is called a half bezel
Bezel Setting
A method of setting gemstones in which the stone is held in the mounting by a narrow band of metal surrounding the girdle (outside perimeter) of the stone.
Birthstone
Birthstones have their roots in ancient astrology, and there have been many birthstone lists used over the years. The most common one today is based on a list first publicized by the U.S. jewelry industry in the 1950s. This list assign birthstones as follows: January - Garnet, February - Amethyst, March - Aquamarine, April - Diamond, May - Emerald, June - Pearl, July - Ruby, August - Peridot, September - Sapphire, October - Opal, November - Citrine, December - Blue Topaz.
Black Diamonds
A highly included diamond generally used in the industry for drilling and polishing, recently these stones have been enhanced to increase their black appearance and then faceted to be used in jewelry.
Brilliance
The white light that bounces off the surface of a diamond.
Bridal Set
A matching set of rings that include and engagement ring and a wedding band.
Brilliant Cut
By far the most common and popular diamond shape. The Brilliant Cut is a round shaped diamond that has 58 facets which provide the maximum amount of brilliance.
Brillianteering
Brillianteering is the final stages of the diamond cutting process. This is when the star facets along with the upper and lower half facets are polished on the diamond.
Brightness
The reflections of white light seen when a diamond is viewed from the top; also referred to as brilliance.
Carat
Abbreviated "ct." and spelled with a "c" is a measure of weight used for gemstones. One carat is equal to 1/5 of a gram (200 milligrams). Stones are measured to the nearest hundredth of a carat. A hundredth of a carat is also called a point. Thus a .10 carat stone can be called either 10 points, or 1/10 of a carat.
Cast
To form liquid metal into a particular shape by pouring into a mold.
Casting
A way of creating a ring (a manufacturing process) where the hot, liquid metal is poured into a mold of the desired shape and design.
Center Stone
The centerpiece of a ring. Typically set up higher than other surrounding stones. Although usually a diamond, this can be any precious gemstone.
Certificate
A grading report describing the quality and details of a stone. The diamond is scrutinized under a microscope and other equipment to analyze its dimensions, clarity, cut, color, finish, symmetry and other characteristics.
Certificate Number
The number listed on a certificate from reputable laboratories to distinguish it from other diamonds in a database used to catalogue each diamonds characteristics.
Channel Set
A gem setting technique in which a number of round, square or rectangular stones are set side by side with no metal separating them in a grooved channel. The outer ridge of metal is then worked over the edges of the stones. This protects the girdle area of the diamonds better than a bead or prong settiing and provides a smooth exterior surface.
Clarity
Clarity refers to the inclusions in a stone and the overall effect those inclusions have on the appearance of the stone. Clarity is also determined by external characteristics, i.e. naturals, chips, scratches, etc.
Classic
The Classic Collection at Robbins Brothers features engagement rings that are destined to become treasured heirlooms. These rings include prong set and channel set diamonds as well as three stone styles.
Cloud
A group of tiny pinpoints found inside a diamond. When view under a 10X gemscope, it may be very difficult to see each individual crystal. A cloud is rarely a serious inclusion.
Cluster Setting
Closely set gemstones arranged to give the illusion of a single, larger gemstone.
Cobalt
Cobalt is a white metal that is four times harder than platinum, scratch resistant, hypoallergenic, and 100% solid giving it a high resistance to shock and pressure. Robbins Brothers carries the trademarked medical grade BioBlu 27 formula cobalt from Scott Kay.
Cocktail Ring
A large over sized ring, set with precious or semi-precious stones. Typically worn on the right hand.
Color
References the visible appearance of color in a stone and in the case of a diamond may also reference the absence of color as in the color grades D- F "colorless."
Conflict Diamonds
Diamonds that originate and are mined from areas controlled by forces at war, or otherwise in armed conflict with the region's existing officially recognized government. The diamonds produced from these areas are used to illegally and often brutally, fund military actions in opposition to those governments, or in contravention of the decisions of the United Nations Security Council. Conflict diamonds are sometimes referred to as "Blood Diamonds."
Comfort Fit
A ring design that features a rounded inside edge for more comfortable constant wear. Comfort fit bands usually require more metal and are thicker, heavier and more durable than a classic fit ring.
Contour Band
A wedding band that fits next to an engagment ring and has a slight bend or unique shape for a closer fit.
Crown
The upper part or "top half" of a faceted gemstone.
Crown Angle
The average angle of the bezel facets relative to the diamond's table.
Cubic Zirconia
Cubic Zirconia are manmade gems which appear very much like diamonds, yet do not have the same intrinsic properties such as light return (sparkle) or hardness (much softer). "CZ's" as they are often called, are mass produced and much less expensive than natural diamonds
culet
A flat facet on the bottom (point) of a gemstone.
Cushion Cut
A square or rectangular cut with rounded corners.
Cut
Refers to the proportions and finish of a polished diamond.
Depth
It is important to consider the depth of a diamond. The proportions of the depth ratio compared to the table ratio is the primary source for identifying how the light is returned to the viewer once it enters a diamond.
Diamond
A natural occurring mineral composed of 99.95% carbon. The 0.05% of trace mineral elements can alter the diamond color from colorless to fancy color. The most common diamond color is yellow, followed by brown. Red is the rarest of the fancy colored diamonds. Diamonds can be found in as many colors as in the rainbow, with varying degrees of intensity. Diamond is the hardest substance on the Mohs hardness scale. It is only one of a few gemstones in the world to exhibit dispersion.
Diamond Cloth
A specialized cloth used for cleaning gemstones, removing oils and soft enough to avoid scratching the surface.
Diamond Dossier
A GIA report or certificate for a diamond that weighs less than 1 carat. Diamonds with a dossier have a laser inscription, but no plot.
Diamond Melee
Small diamonds that are full cuts containing all 58 facets They are typically used as accent diamonds. The word melee refers to any small diamond under .17cts. These are not to be confused with "diamond chips" which are not fully faceted diamonds (contain far less than 58 facets).
Diamond Paper
A specialized paper used to enclose a diamond when stored to protect the stone from outside elements.
Diamond Tester
A device used to determine a genuine diamond from a synthetic. Most diamond testers use Thermal Conductivity (heat and temperature).
Diamond Tweezers
A specialized tweezers designed to handle a diamond without damaging the sensitive points and facets of the stone.
Diamontologist
An expert in the field of diamonds that has completed a course from the Diamond Council of America.
Dimensions
The length, width and depth of a gemstone. Because the actual millimeter size of a diamond from the top can vary base on how it is cut, this measurement represents the size of the gemstone more accurately.
Dispersion
Colored light that reflects from within the diamond--rainbow colors often referred to as "fire."
EGL
European Gemological Laboratory is a diamond grading laboratory with labs through the world. ELG USA has 4 labs in North America. Diamonds graded by EGL USA will have a US or CA at the beginning of the certificate number.
Electroplated
Jewelry can be mechanically plated with gold in a variety of ways, including electroplated. Eventually, the gold plating wears away, but it depends on how often the item is worn and how thick the plating is.
Emerald Cut
A popular diamond shape, based on a form of step cutting. An emerald cut diamond is rectangular with facets on the sides, ends and across the corners. Emerald Cuts allow for a clear view into the diamond due to the large open table. Although an Emerald Cut appears to have fewer facets, it actually typically has 58 facets, or the same number as a round brilliant.
Engagement Ring
A ring used to signify a promise to wed. Engagement Rings usually have one larger center gem stone either alone (solitaire) or with other smaller diamonds down the band. Diamonds are the most popular choice of gemstone because of their value and traditional symbolism of lasting love but Sapphires and Rubies have seen an increase in popularity.
Engrave
To decorate or embellishing metal or other material with patterns using a stamping tool or drill. This was a popular technique in mid-Victorian jewelry and is still popular today. Stamped pieces can be designed to imitate hand engraving although, under magnification, the design is much more sharp in a hand engraved piece, with subtle irregularities. Engraving can also refer to inscribing, on the inside of the shank, a dedication or monogram to identify a piece.
Eternity Band/ Ring
A style of ring where gemstones, usually diamonds, are set along the entire circumference of the band.
European Cut
The style of diamond cutting popular from approximately 1890 to the 1930s. Unlike the old mine cut preceding it, the European cut has a round girdle (perimeter) made possible by the introduction of the power bruiting machine (Bruiting is the term for shaping the girdle of a diamond, the first step in the cutting process). The European cut can be distinguished by the size of the table (the top, flat facet) in relation to the diameter of the stone. In a European cut, the table is smaller in relation to the diameter of the stone. Also, the culet (the bottom facet, is often large, often appearing to create a hole at the bottom of the diamond, when viewed from the top, since the large culet lets light escape instead of reflecting back to the viewer.
Extra Facets
A diamond that has one or more facets in addition to the normal number of facets for a specific cutting style.
Eye Clean
A diamond that has no visible inclusions to the unaided eye.
Facet
Any one of the flat surfaces cut into a gem also refers to the act of cutting flat surfaces onto a stone.
Faceted
A faceted stone has small, flat-cut surfaces that make a sparkling effect on transparent stones, although translucent and even sometimes opaque stones are faceted. Traditionally, diamonds, rubies and sapphires are faceted to show off their brilliance.
Fancy Color
Diamonds come in every color of the rainbow - and then some. Diamonds that range outside the normal market range are classified as fancy color. Normal market range (D - Z) includes the category of white diamonds which range from colorless to light yellow, light brown or light grey.
Fancy Shape / Cut
A shape (in terms of the diamond) that is not round.
Feather
A tiny fracture inside a diamond that resembles a feather.
Filigree
Ornamental work of fine wire formed into delicate tracery. The wire is typically made from gold, silver of platinum.
Findings
All types of fasteners, and construction components used in jewelry making.
Finish
The texture or polish on any piece of jewelry. Some types of finish are brush, high polish, satin, matte and sandblast.
Fire
The flashes of color that appear as white light is separated into rainbow colors creating a prism effect. Technically known as dispersion.
Flawless
A diamond which has no inclusions, both internally and on the surface. Flawless is the highest level of diamond clarity and extremely rare.
Fluorescence
The visible light emitted from a diamond when exposed to long wave or short wave ultraviolet light. Only 30% of diamonds exhibit fluorescence. Lab reports will note the intensity/strength of the light emitted. Depending on what you have heard or read, you may be under the misconception that fluorescence in a diamond is a bad thing and impairs the beauty of the stone. The truth is, that for those diamonds that exhibit fluorescence, less than 3% negatively impact the appearance of the diamonds in natural lighting conditions. In fact, in certain color ranges fluorescence will actually help the diamond appear whiter face up. A bit of information that can help stretch your budget without sacrificing quality.
Four C's
Various characteristics of diamonds are graded and categorized by the diamond industry. The most important, and easiest to identify are the Cut, Clarity, Color, and Carat weight.
Fracture-Filled
A way of enhancing a diamond to make a lower quality diamond appear better than it is. The process fills any surface reaching cracks and or inclusions with silica. Fracture filling a diamonds is temporary and will compromise the integrity and durability of the diamond. A trained professional can see this enhancement under a gemscope.
Freshwater Pearl
A pearl produced by a freshwater mussel.
Gemological Microscope
A specialized stereoscopic microscope (viewed using both eyes) used to view gems under high powered magnification.
Gemologist
A person who has been trained and accredited in diamonds and colored stones.
Gemscope
A specialized stereoscopic microscope (viewed using both eyes) used to view gems under high powered magnification.
Gemstone
A precious or semiprecious stone, especially one cut, polished, and used in a piece of jewelry.
GIA
Gemological Institute of America was established in 1931, the Gemological Institute of America is the world’s foremost authority on diamonds, colored stones, and pearls. GIA is a leader in Diamond grading and education. An individual who completes the entire GIA gemological course work is a graduate gemologist (G.G.)
Girdle
The area of a gemstone, where the top and bottom of the gemstone meet, that helps to define its shape or outline, as well as separates the crown from the pavilion.
Gold
A naturally occurring, soft, yellow metal. It is most malleable of all precious metals used in jewelry. Commonly alloyed with other metals to increase the durability and in some cases alter the color. Most commonly alloyed with nickel, silver, copper and palladium. The karat number refers to the parts of pure gold versus parts of alloy with 24 parts being pure. So a 14K alloy is 14/24 parts pure gold, or about 58% gold.
Grade
The level of rarity in which a diamond is classified.
Graduated
To vary in gradual increments. For example, diamonds that start small towards the finger and get larger as go up the band towards the center stone.
Guard
A set of rings worn on the sides of an engagement ring, usually a solitaire. The two bands are typically connected at the bottom of the rings with one or two small bars allowing for a gap between the two bands to place an engagment ring into.
Gypsy Setting
A setting style where the stone is sunk into the metal leaving the top of the stone nearly level with the top of the ring surface.
Halo
A ring of diamonds surrounding a center stone. This setting gets its name from the fact that it allows the center stone to appear larger and gives the center diamond a heavenly halo effect.
Hammered Finish
The texture of this finish is a dimpled look. It looks like a hammer was used to pound each dimple on the surface of the ring, thus the name of this finish. This finish can be left with a high polish to reflect light in different directions or can be combined with sanblasting or matting for a unique, non-shiny look.
Hardness
The ability of a material to resist scratching. Hardness is categorized on the Mohs scale, it runs from 1 to 10 using a series of reference minerals, and a position on the scale depends on the ability to scratch minerals rated lower on the scale.
Head
Generally refers to the prongs of an engagement ring used to securely hold the center diamond. Can be used to refer to smaller baskets used to hold diamonds.
Hearts and Arrows
This term is used to describe the visual effect achieved in a round diamond when viewed under a special magnification tool. The perfectly aligned facets of a diamond will reveal hearts patterns from the bottom and arrows from the top. Most round diamonds will give this effect, but the higher the polish and symmetry, the more uniform the hearts and arrows will be.
Heart Shaped Diamond
A specialty cut of diamond that is shaped like a heart. This is a popular cut because the shape of a heart is traditionally associated with love.
High Polish
The way the metal is polished to provide a mirror like finish.
Ideal Cut
A diamond cut to optimal proportions, with optimal polish and symmetry, and the most weight loss to produce maximum luster, brilliance, dispersion, and scintillation. Diamonds cut to this standard are the most valuable, with only 1% of round diamonds on the market cut to this standard. This term can be misused as every jeweler can call their best diamond ideal.
IGI
International Gemological Institute. A world wide laboratory for diamond and gem certification.
Inclusion
The naturally occurring, unique identifying characteristics that can be found inside a diamond, like a human birthmark. They are irregularities or small bits of foreign matter or crystals that were trapped in a diamond while it was being formed. Taken as a whole, inclusions are used in combination with other factors to determine a diamond's clarity grade.
Indented Natural
A tiny indented edge of the original rough diamond crystal that has been left unpolished on the surface of the diamond.
Internally Flawless
A clarity grade which describes a diamond without internal imperfections or flaws but with minor surface blemishes such as scratches, small naturals, etc., which under a strict interpretation of the FTC rulings would preclude its being called flawless.
Invisible Setting
A setting technique by which stones, usually diamonds, are attached from the back so they appear to have no mounting. The stones have tiny grooves cut into their base where the metal is attached. This process is used in side stones and in multi-stone centers.
Iridium
a heavy metallic element of the platinum group; used primarily as an alloy with other metals. Iridium is often alloyed with platinum to improve workability.
Irradiation
A process by which an item is exposed to radiation. This process is used to lighten or enhance the color of gemstones and diamonds
Jeweler
An individual or company that makes or sells jewelry and has an understanding and knowledge of jewelry. Also refers to a person that is trained to do repairs and design of jewelry
Jewelry
Ornaments worn by people on the body. Forms of jewelry include: necklace, bracelet, anklet, earring, locket, pendant, charm bracelet, ring and chain.
Karat
Karat is a measure of the purity of gold. 24 karat gold is pure gold. 14 Karat gold is 14 parts gold and 10 parts other metals. Note- Karat is not the same as "carat".
Kimberly Process
The Kimberley Process (Kimberley Process or KP) is an international governmental certification program that was set up to prevent the trade in diamonds that fund conflict. Launched in January 2003, the program requires governments to certify that shipments of rough diamonds are conflict-free. Robbins Brothers follows the Kimberly Process and requires all of our vendors to sign a contract that they do as well.
Knot
A tiny crystal of diamond or other mineral that goes against the grain of the diamond, and protrudes slightly through the surface of the diamond facet.
Lab Created
Gemstones created in a lab, also known as synthetic stones, with exact chemical properties as the natural gems.
Lab Created Diamond
Lab-created diamonds have the same physical, chemical and optical properties as a mined diamond and emerge as rough diamonds. Both have the same hardness, specific gravity, refractive index and dispersion factor; are polished using the same equipment and techniques; and have the same brilliance, sparkle, fire and cintillation. Both are, in fact, diamond. Lab created diamonds are also called symthetic or man-made, although these terms can lead consumers to think the stones are simulants (fake).
Laser Drilling
To laser drill a diamond, a beam of high energy light is used to bore a small tunnel from the surface of the diamond to the targeted inclusion. Then, strong acid is forced down the tunnel to bleach out or burn away the inclusion. The tell-tale signs of laser drilling can be easily detected with proper training. The drilling process leaves a small tunnel from the surface of the diamond to the site of the former inclusion. Some drill holes are later filled. Robbins Brothers does not carry Laser drilled diamonds.
Laser Inscription
The process of engraving in a ring or a stone using a laser. Diamond engraving is usually done on the girdle and consists of the certifying company and the certificate number. Laser engraving on a ring usually is required on hard metals like Tungsten, Cobalt and Titanium.
Layaway
A method of payment where a person can put down a deposit (20% of the total purchase price with Robbins Brothers) for their merchandise and then make payments over a period of time (90 days with Robbins Brothers) to pay off the balance before taking the merchandise home.
Leakage
The areas in a diamond where light escapes and does not return to your eye.
Lifetime Diamond Warranty
We will replace any diamond, ruby, and sapphire which in normal use chips, cracks or separates from its mounting and is lost with a diamond, ruby or sapphire of comparable quality to your original gemstone for the purchaser's lifetime. This warranty is valid, provided the diamond, ruby, and sapphire mounting have been cleaned and checked once a year; and that such inspection has been verified in writing in the space provided in the Lifetime Diamond & Gemstone Warranty Booklet by an authorized representative of Robbins Brothers.
Light Performance
A general term used in the jewelry industry in an attempt to measure and quantify the type and amount of light return.
Light Return
The amount of light that is reflected and refracted through a diamond to return to the eye of the viewer.
Loupe
A small, hand held, magnifying glass used by jewelers. A loupe allows for a jeweler to see many surface blemishes as well as some internal inclusions. A gemscope though is used by laboratories for grading and certification of a diamond.
Marquise
A stone cut in a boat shape, pointed at both ends, with rounded sides. Note that the correct pronunciation is "Mar-KEYS", not "Mar-KEY" which is commonly heard.
Matte Finish
A technique for finishing the surface of a metal so that it does not give off any luster. A matte finish is opposite of a high polish finish. Many rings will combine the two finishes for a unique look.
Melee
The term used to describe diamonds that weigh .17ct and below.
Micropave
The precise setting of very small diamonds using a microscope in which the stones are set low and very closely spaced, so that the surface appears to be paved with gemstones.
Milgrain
A raised, beaded edge on a ring done with a special engraver's tool; creating a tiny row/line of beads.
Mine Cut
A style of diamond cutting most popular before 1890. It features a cushion shaped outline, rather than the round outline of the modern cut and old European cuts, and has a different facet arrangement.
Mineral
A naturally occurring, inorganic substance, with a chemical composition and usually an orderly arrangement of atoms.
Modern
The Modern Collection at Robbins Brothers features engagement rings with channel set diamonds, open shanks and bold mountings.
Mohs' Hardness Scale
A relative scale of hardness used in classifying minerals. It runs from 1 to 10 using a series of reference minerals, and a position on the scale depends on the ability to scratch minerals rated lower. Talc is 0 and diamond is 10
Mounting
The metal frame or housing in which diamonds are set. Semi-mountings are sometimes referred to simply as mountings although, technically, a mounting does not have side gemstones and a semi-mounting does.
Natural
A tiny edge of the original rough diamond crystal that is left unpolished on the surface of the diamond.
Needle
A very fine, elongated inclusion within a diamond or gemstone.
Oval Cut
A cut that is oblong and faceted with round edges to create an oval shape.
Palladium
A naturally occurring grey/white metal that is in the Platinum metals group. It is hypoallergenic and less expensive than Platinum. It never changes color or tarnishes. This seemingly new metal actually was used in the 1940's to create jewelry as a replacement for platinum which was only to be used for war purposes.
Patina
As a general term, patina refers to the change in an object's surface resulting from natural aging and the accumulation of fine scratches. Platinum patina is highly prized due to the time that it takes to build up. It is a result of years of fine scratches.
Pavé
(pah-VAY) Very tightly set stones, as in a pavement; a gem setting technique in which the stones are set low and very closely spaced, so that the surface appears to be paved with gemstones. Most commonly seen with diamonds, but may be used with any stone.
Pavilion
The lower part of a faceted gemstone found below the girdle. Sometimes referred to as the "base."
Pear Cut
A cut that resembles a pear or teardrop-rounded on one end and pointed on the other.
Pearl
A natural gemstone formed when a oyster is irritated by a substance that gets into its shell. If the irritation is a naturally occurring grain of sand, it is an Oriental pearl. If it is produced by purposefully inserting a bead, a cultured pearl is formed. A pearl that forms attached to the shell is a blister pearl, while a pearl that is irregularly shaped rather than round is referred to as baroque.
Peg Setting
Any setting with a small pin on the bottom that then fits through a hole that has been drilled or cast in a ring securing the setting.
Pendant
A piece of jewelry suspended from a chain or necklace.
PGS
Professional Gem Sciences is a full service gemological laboratory.
Pinpoint
Small crystals inside a diamond or gemstone that look like small specks under 10X magnification. A cluster of pinpoints is called a cloud.
Platinum
A naturally occurring grey/white metal that is usually 95% pure and hypoallergenic. It is 30 more times rare than gold and never changes color. In order for an item to be stamped with only PLAT, PT, or Platinum the item must be 95% platinum. If preceded by a number, an item is considered platinum if 85% or greater content of platinum, i.e. 850PT, 900PT.
Plot
A plot is a Top-Down view or diagram of your Diamond with the Inclusions (both visible and microscopic) drawn on it. This is like the diamonds fingerprint. Every diamond Plot or fingerprint is unique and can be used to identify your diamond.
Point
A unit of weight for diamonds equal to one-hundredth of a carat or .002 grams.
Polish
Polish has two different definitions in the jewelry industry. Polish is the act of making something smooth and glossy. The first definition refers to metal. You can polish the metal of a ring to remove scratches and create a high luster. This is done by applying the metal to a soft cloth wheel that is spinning at high speeds. The friction will polish the metal to a glossy finish. The second definition refers to the finish of a diamond's, or gem's, facets. Unlike metals, Diamonds are the hardest substance know to man. This means that the only thing that is hard enough to polish each facet smooth is diamond dust. Because they are so hard, Diamonds can take and keep a polish quality that far surpasses all other gems.
Polishing
This is the act of making something smooth and glossy. Also see Polish.
Porosity
The tiny air bubbles in Swiss Cheese are pleasant, but similar holes in metal are a huge issue. Pockets of air form during the process of creating a ring which can affect the durability and integrity of a ring if the ring is not properly cast. Porosity in cast jewelry weakens the basic structure of the piece, causing ring to be brittle, shanks to break, prongs to break off and galleries to crack. All Robbins Brothers rings are quality controlled three or more times looking for porosity.
Princess Cut
A square cut. This is also referred to as a square modified brilliant cut.
Pre-Owned
Pre-owned items are items that have been previously worn but restored to their original beauty. We inspect each piece to make sure it passes all the Robbins Brothers standards of high quality. These items are only available online and not in-store. Robbins Brothers Pre-owned rings come with all benefits of buying new at a phenomenal value
Pre-Set Solitaire
A solitaire mounting that has a pre-selected diamond set into the head. Also see Solitaire.
Promise Ring
A promise ring can mean many different things. The bottom line though is it is meant to represent any promise that someone makes to another person. The most common uses for a promise ring are; a promise to be engaged in the future, a promise to be faithful and exclusive or a promise to abstain from sex until marriage.
Prong Setting
Stones set with individual prongs holding them in place.
Prongs
The term referring to the metal holding a diamond.
Quartz
A family of colored gemstones widely used in jewelry. Quartz is available in many different forms including Amethyst, Citrine, Onyx, Rose Quartz and Smokey Quartz.
Radiant Cut
A square or rectangle shaped diamond with clipped-off corners like the emerald cut. A Radiant Cut has 70 facets. The radiant was first introduced in 1976.
Rhodium
A metal that is part of the platinum family. Silver, gold, and even base metals were often Rhodium plated during the 30's and 40's to give them the white, shiny look associated with platinum. Today, White Gold is Rhodium Plated to give it a pure white look. Although in the platinum family of metals, it is not the same as platinum. While both metals are solid precious metals - Rhodium is extremely rare and extremely costly making its use limited to plating.
Rhodium-Plating
A thin plating of rhodium, which is one of the members of the platinum family, applied over either Sterling Silver, White Gold or other alloy to give a bright, shiny, long lasting silver-colored finish to a piece.
Rose Gold
Gold in its pure form is yellow. Alloys are added to give to gold strength as well as to change its color. Rose Gold has a pinkish color to it and this is accomplished by adding Copper as an alloy to the gold.
Round Diamond
This cut is technically referred to as a brilliant cut. This cut is round and has 57 facets, or 58 facets if it has a culet. This is the most popular and classic of diamond shapes.
Ruby
A precious gem of the corundum family that is red in color. All other gems in the corundum family that are not red are called sapphires. Ruby is the birthstone for July and is very popular in bridal jewelry due to its hardness and durability.
Ruthenium
A member of the platinum group metals. This metal is most often used as the alloy in platinum jewelry
Sapphire
A gemstone of the corundum family, although blue is the color most commonly associated with sapphires, they come in a range of colors from white to orange to green to pink. In fact, if a corundum gemstone is red, it is referred to as a ruby, but any other color, including the light pinkish "rubies" in inexpensive jewelry are properly referred to as sapphires. Sapphires are below diamonds on the Mohs scale at a 9 with diamond a 10 (relative scale of 1-10) and because of their hardness are often used in engagement rings.
Scintillation
A momentary flash of light as the diamond, eye or the light source moves. Sometimes referred to as "sparkle."
Semi-Mount
The term used to describe an engagement ring when the center stone has not been added yet. Semi-mountings do include the side diamonds.
Shadow Band
a popular style of wedding bands which offers a thin metal band (sometimes having diamonds) following the shape, contours and outline of one side of the engagement ring.
Shank
The term used to describe the part of a ring that encircles the finger.
Shape
The outline or silhouette of a stone. Common diamond shapes include round, princess cut (square), oval, marquise, pear, emerald and heart.
SI (Clarity)
SI refers to the clarity grading category of "Slight Inclusions". At this clarity grade, inclusions are relatively easy to see under a 10x magnification and may be visible from the bottom of the diamond. SI is divided into 2 categories; SI1 and SI2, with SI1 being higher on the scale and more rare.
Side Stone
A diamond or gemstone that is set alongside a center stone. A sidestone can aslo surround the center stones as in the case of a halo.
Simulant (imitiation)
A stone that imitates the look of a gemstone. It may have similar optical or physical characteristics of the gemstone it is trying to simulate but does not have the same chemical properties. The most common diamonds simulants are cubic zirconia (CZ) and Moissanite.
Sku
Abbreviation for Stock-keeping unit. An SKU is the unique identifying number that Robbins Brothers assigns each ring in our inventory.
Solitaire
The style of engagement ring which is one single diamond set in a simple band without any other side stones. This is probably the most recognized version of the engagement ring in the US. Solitaire can also refer to a pendant with a single stone or to an earring (or pair of earrings) consisting of a single stone.
Sparkle
The most common term referring to the diamonds fire and scintillation.
Stainless Steel
A steel alloy with a minimum of 11% chromium content by mass. Stainless steel is durable, hypoallergenic, does not tarnish and is easy to clean.
Sterling Silver
A metal that consist of 92.5% silver and 7.5% alloy, usually copper.
Stud
A simple and classic earring made from one single diamond, gemstone or ball attached to a straight post. A stud will have no dangling parts.
Surface Blemishes
Naturally occurring, unique, identifying characteristics that can be found on the surface of a diamonds. Considered as a factor of clarity grade in a diamond.
Symmetry
Symmetry is how the facets of a diamond align with each other. If there are differences in symmetry, the result will be loss of light and therefore, sparkle. Symmetry can be negatively affected by off-center tables, unequal facets, and the thickness and inconsistency of the girdle.
Synthetic
A stone that has the same chemical composition, physical properties, optical properties and crystal structure as its natural counterpart. A synthetic stone is created in a controlled laboratory environment.
Synthetic Diamond
A stone that has the same chemical composition, physical properties, optical properties and crystal structure as its natural counterpart. Synthetic diamonds have been on the market since the mid 1980's and are difficult to detect. Synthetic diamonds are made by a High Pressure, High Temperature (HPHT) process or by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process. While this term is often used, it can lead consumers to think the stones are fake, artificial or simulants such as cubic zirconia, which is inaccurate.
Table Facet
The largest facet on a gemstone. Located on the crown, it is the large flat surface that light is allowed into the stone through.
Tennis Bracelet
A bracelet containing many small gems, usually diamonds, linked together in a narrow chain. The name tennis bracelet was first used when the great tennis player Chris Evert dropped a diamond bracelet during a tennis match in the summer of 1987 (at the US Open Tennis Tournament). She had to stop the match until she found her bracelet.
Tension Set
A diamond that is held in place by pressure giving the diamond the look of floating in space.
Three Stone
A ring consisting of a center gemstone flanked by a smaller gemstone on each side. These rings can also be combined with other setting styles like channel or pave settings for a unique look. These rings celebrate your past, present and future together. You can also find pendants and earrings in this style.
Tiffany Setting
The high pronged setting most common today for engagement rings such as a diamond solitaire; this setting was introduced by Tiffany & Co. in 1886.
Titanium
A strong and light weight metal used in jewelry such as rings and watches. Titanium is 10 times lighter than steel yet is 10 times stronger.
Toughness
The ability of a material to resist breaking.
Treated
An action performed on a gemstone to improve/enhance its color, clarity, or both. Some treatments are not permanent. The most common treatment for a diamond are: irradiation (to change color), fracture filling (to improve clarity) and laser drilling (to improve clarity).
Tungsten Carbide
A hypoallergenic and the most scratch resistant of metals. Mohs hardness for our bands is 8.5. Robbins Brothers carries a tungsten carbide that is an 85% pure tungsten carbide formula which creates the highest strength of the metal. Many items sold as tungsten can be alloyed with other metals such as cobalt.
Twinning Wisp
A visible inclusion or line within the diamond that may look like a ripple. This is usually caused by an irregularity in the crystal structure.
Two-Tone
A piece of jewelry consisitng of two different metal types or finishes. Most common with white and yellow metal combinations, you will also find rings combining two different white metals.
Ultrasonic Cleaner
A machine that cleans jewelry using high frequency vibrations. Most ultrasonic cleaners also heat up the solution that is used to clean the jewelry. Many gemstones should not be cleaned in an ultrasonic cleaner such as pearls, coral, onyx, emerald, tanzanite or turquoise.
Unaided Eye
Industry term used to describe viewing or looking at a stone without the use of magnification.
VS (Clarity)
VS refers to the clarity grading category of "Very Slight" inclusions. At this clarity grade, inclusions are relatively difficult to see under a 10x magnification. VS is divided into 2 categories; VS1 and VS2, with VS1 being higher on the scale and more rare.
VVS (Clarity)
VVS refers to the clarity grading category of "Very Very Slight" inclusions. At this clarity grade, inclusions are extremely difficult to see under a 10x magnification. VVS is divided into 2 categories; VVS1 and VVS2, with VVS1 being higher on the scale and more rare.
Vintage
The Vintage Collection at Robbins Brothers includes styles with micropave diamonds, halo settings, milgrain details and stately side diamonds all with an antique feel.
White Gold
Yellow gold mixed with a whitening alloy to appear white. Because it is not a naturally occurring white metal, over time it will appear to "tarnish" yellow as its natural color comes through and the rhodium plating, added to give the metal a white finish, wears off. A jeweler can fix this by rhodium plating the piece of jewelry to restore its uniform white color.
Wedding Ring
A ring that is exchanged at the wedding ceremony. It is uniform in its width all the way around.
Wrap
Also called solitaire enhancers, a wrap is a ring that is designed to go along side a solitaire engagment ring. Part of the wrap is designed to go over the solitaire band and "wrap" around the diamond creating a completed and enhanced look.
XOXO
A common abbreviation for “Hugs and Kisses”. Frequently used as an engraving on the inside of the ring combined with the couple’s wedding date.
Yellow Gold
Gold in its pure form is yellow. Gold is relatively pure when mined but is alloyed with other metals to increase it durability and strength in fine jewelry as well as to change its color. Yellow gold is alloyed to maintain its original natural color.
Zircon
Naturally occurring mineral available in clear, yellow, orange, brown and reddish brown colors. This mineral is often confused with the man made diamond stimulant Cubic Zirconia, but they are completely different materials.